How do I discard unstaged changes in Git?

4 045

1 270

How do I discard changes in my working copy that are not in the index?


Posted 2008-09-09T19:33:59.133

Reputation: 127 509

See also

– Cees Timmerman – 2016-02-04T17:11:22.560

3git-clean only removes untracked files from the working tree – Yega – 2016-09-15T12:29:43.057

12To clarify Asenar's comment above, git-clean -df can be dangerous. It will delete local untracked files (e.g. covered by a .gitignore) Read all below carefully and consider git checkout . instead – jacanterbury – 2016-10-07T08:05:12.780

8'git clean -df ' Be warned! I tried that and lost key folders that are unable to be restored... Ouch! – Gabe Karkanis – 2016-10-27T21:01:59.737

13hitting git status gives a suggestion on how to do that! git checkout -- . – Paulo – 2017-12-21T10:42:13.363

git gui has a feature which will safely revert changes. .gitignore is honored by this program where as git-clean doesn't use it at all. – wheredidthatnamecomefrom – 2018-01-13T15:24:21.047

What about new files that were created? Are these removed too? – Costa – 2018-10-20T04:14:26.930


2 275

Another quicker way is:

git stash save --keep-index --include-untracked

You don't need to include --include-untracked if you don't want to be thorough about it.

After that, you can drop that stash with a git stash drop command if you like.

Greg Hewgill

Posted 2008-09-09T19:33:59.133

Reputation: 657 778

111And to be thorough about it, you'd want --include-untracked as well. – T.J. Crowder – 2015-03-23T07:45:54.173

I think it is better to use git reset --hard if you don't want to keep track of changes – Karim Samir – 2015-04-12T17:25:06.343

7@KarimSamir: The question specifically asks about changes that are not in the index. The git reset command will discard changes in the index too. – Greg Hewgill – 2015-04-12T17:28:48.460

113git checkout -- . is much faster – Frank – 2015-04-17T16:16:33.570

33Neither the git stash, nor any variety of git checkout will discard unstaged deletes. According to the output of git status, the actual correct answer here is some flavor git reset HEAD – Chris Warth – 2015-05-27T22:27:26.400

98This pollutes the stash stack. git checkout -- . does the job with one command only. – Felipe Tonello – 2015-09-09T11:17:44.270

3@FelipeTonello I wish I could give you 100 rep for that comment. In my test, that seemed to do exactly what I wanted. Instead, I spent the last hour using "git checkout -- *" and working around all the untracked file errors. – Buttle Butkus – 2015-12-11T03:36:08.803

@T.J.Crowder How in the world does Git know how to revert an untracked file? Does it just delete it? – Nathan Arthur – 2016-04-05T18:44:19.727

1@NathanArthur: Right. Git puts the untracked file in the stash, and then deletes it from the working tree. Restoring the stash copies the untracked file into the working tree, so it shows up as a new untracked file again. – T.J. Crowder – 2016-04-06T07:02:47.217

@ChrisWarth - git checkout -- does not work for me. Git status still shows untracked changes. – HelloWorldNoMore – 2016-05-09T18:46:20.383

How can we the same using Source Tree.? – Mohammad Fareed – 2016-06-14T10:58:34.673

1git checkout -- file – sunlover3 – 2016-06-30T11:56:51.660

1In the same spirit of this answer, if you do not want to pollute the stash you can just create a new branch, switch back to the original branch, reset, then delete the newly created branch. – Jonn – 2016-08-12T08:13:34.193

1You can create an alias for stash save --keep-index --include-untracked and use the stash as a recycle bin so you can always easily restore your changes if cleaning them up was a mistake. – Wojtek Owczarczyk – 2016-09-07T12:57:59.983

@T.J.Crowder "Warning, doing this will permanently delete your files if you have any directory/* entries in your gitignore file." See this post:

– adjenks – 2017-06-30T16:37:21.440

I lost a bunch of stuff doing that once. Stashing untracked. – adjenks – 2017-06-30T16:37:51.953

git clean has a dry-run option, -n – nonconvergent – 2018-06-06T16:25:54.233

Worked, seems like an awful command to do it, but it worked. – Kelly – 2018-07-14T01:07:36.217

What the hell has happened after that command? git stash apply doesn't bring changes!!!!! – holms – 2018-08-02T10:58:18.283

@ChrisWarth surprised your response didn't get more likes. – Kevin Wiggins – 2018-10-28T01:18:22.600

4 396

For all unstaged files in current working directory use:

git checkout -- .

For a specific file use:

git checkout -- path/to/file/to/revert

-- here to remove argument ambiguation.


Posted 2008-09-09T19:33:59.133

Reputation: 48 152

90This seems to be the git canonical way. i.e. exactly what git tells you to do if you type git status – ABMagil – 2014-08-18T16:01:58.777

20Doesn't work if there are untracked files. Git says error: The following untracked working tree files would be overwritten by checkout: .... – Michael Iles – 2014-08-24T13:26:26.457

76newbie question, what does "git checkout -- ." mean semantically? – kaid – 2014-09-07T19:21:07.517

Michael: start with git clean -df to remove all untracked files first, as suggested in Mariusz' answer above. – Godsmith – 2014-09-26T05:27:23.203

102@Ninjack git checkout -- . means the same thing as git checkout ., except that you're explicit about the fact that you're not specifying the branch name. They both say checkout the HEAD version on the branch I am currently on for '.' or './'. If you do git checkout branch-name directory-or-file-name in general, you get the HEAD version of directory-or-file-name on branch branch-name. – akgill – 2014-10-29T19:55:29.603

3git checkout . is shorter – Marc-André Lafortune – 2014-11-06T20:01:45.347

IMO this suggestion doesn't handle deletes while stash variant does. – Martin Dvorak – 2014-11-24T12:29:27.500

"git checkout path/to/file/to/revert" what I have to add if I am on branch, and want contents of file to be replaced by last revision of that file on branch. – Alexey Tigarev – 2014-12-17T16:13:50.983

18IMO this variant is imperfect, as it doesn't handle situation when your changed repository is not on the HEAD revision at the moment of changes cleaning and you DO NOT want to update it to HEAD, and want to just clean the changes. – alexykot – 2015-01-05T17:27:44.847

4@alexykot "update to HEAD" means cleaning the changes. HEAD is the revision that is currently checked out. – Xandaros – 2015-03-31T12:41:49.077

yes, indeed, my bad. However git checkout HEAD does not actually discard the changes for me, so stash based solution is still preferred. – alexykot – 2015-04-01T13:10:22.247

7@alexykot: you have to specify a path with git checkout otherwise it will not kill changes you made! The trick with . is that a checkout with path also includes all subdirectories. – Robert Siemer – 2015-04-19T13:46:29.570

I do this and get warnings about unmerged files. How do I discard these unmerged files? – Erel Segal-Halevi – 2015-05-19T04:46:50.770

2This will only discard changes to existing files. It will not discard any new files that you have added since the last commit. – AndroidDev – 2015-06-07T14:33:30.930

1Interesting. For some reason, this doesn't actually work in a submodule. This has just been driving me nuts! I was CERTAIN that git clean -- . should do what I wanted it to do. Reading this answer and testing it confirmed it. But for some reason, IT DOESN'T WORK IN SUBMODULES! Why not? <sigh> – Ted Middleton – 2015-07-13T21:37:11.810


I prefer the git stash save --keep-index solution, because it creates a commit. Even if I do a git stash drop immediately after the stash save the commit can still be restored. So the git stash save ... solution is safer just in case you discarded too much. E.g. using

– René Link – 2015-07-17T10:41:56.147

4Although it seems obvious, I think it's worth noting that this command should be run from the repository's top-level directory, as it cleans only the current working directory. – Michał Trybus – 2015-08-19T12:35:16.300

1Here's a scenario where "git checkout -- ." worked well: I had transferred a repo from Cygwin to Linux via a FAT-formatted USB drive. After transferring the data to Linux, "git status" and "git diff" showed signs of many file permission changes. There were also some other files present (notes and stuff). I used "git checkout -- ." to undo the file permission changes. Now git diff is clean and git status only shows the few files that have been added. The "clean" step from the other answer would be useful if I wanted to get rid of the untracked files. – cardiff space man – 2015-09-15T18:53:59.930

Is it always better using a double dash git checkout -- path/to/file/to/revert? – Frozen Flame – 2015-12-10T02:19:42.033

3@MichałTrybus to clean the whole repository regardless of where you are inside it, you can use git checkout -- :/ (I was looking for this myself!) – waldyrious – 2016-04-04T15:20:52.277

2I am very confused, this (git checkout -- .) just does not work. I still have all my changes (unstaged) files. – PandaWood – 2016-05-24T06:24:13.577

That's strange PandaWood. I just used this solution and it did exactly what I wanted. – Wylliam Judd – 2016-07-22T21:58:22.267

Suppose I made changes in file A (state1), and the file has been modified at Master (state2). If I do git checkout A, to which state will it point now, the previous state1, or updated state2..?? – Bhavuk Mathur – 2016-10-18T09:08:32.633

Based on information elsewhere and personal experiment, git checkout -- . only considers overwriting files if a corresponding file already exists in the index. @MichaelIles It appears to me that the files causing you trouble must have had checked-in versions elsewhere. – Cris P – 2018-02-27T19:54:30.927

I voted down as it did not work for me – Salathiel Genèse – 2018-05-30T12:13:32.280

Doesn't work for me either. – ScottyBlades – 2018-09-28T21:29:18.653

1 666

It seems like the complete solution is:

git clean -df
git checkout -- .

git clean removes all untracked files (warning: while it won't delete ignored files mentioned directly in .gitignore, it may delete ignored files residing in folders) and git checkout clears all unstaged changes.

Mariusz Nowak

Posted 2008-09-09T19:33:59.133

Reputation: 23 094

96The other two answers don't actually work, this one did. – John Hunt – 2014-09-01T12:23:56.650

2this reverted to previous commit for some reason – dval – 2014-10-01T18:03:37.657

15@dval this is becues the first command removed the unindexed files and the second one removed the unstaged changes (of indexed files). So if you did not have any staged changes this it is the same as reverting to the last commit with git reset --hard – Amanuel Nega – 2014-10-31T10:47:51.997

3use -dff if the untracked directory is a git clone. – accuya – 2014-12-16T02:52:30.207

1How to understand this command? -- .? Does it say checkout current last commit to current folder? – Evan Hu – 2015-01-18T05:09:42.473

79Be careful running git clean -df. If you don't understand what it does, you might be deleting files you mean to keep, like robots.txt, uploaded files, etc. – ctlockey – 2015-01-28T14:57:56.807

2git checkout -- . it works perfect. – zx1986 – 2015-06-23T01:44:45.827

31As @ctlockey said, the first command also delete directories if they are composed of ignored files only... Lost a whole bunch of configuration files on my project :( Be careful. – Maxime Lorant – 2015-07-16T08:00:59.433

This is actually the correct answer. stash and checkout only applies for staged changes. git clean will do – Junchao Gu – 2015-10-01T06:21:17.177

1@ctlockey if those are in your repository then you have bigger problems. – rightfold – 2015-12-28T12:31:08.430

The 2 answers above don't work for unstaged changes.Only this one . – Michael IV – 2016-05-16T15:56:37.363

I suspect this works where the others don't perhaps because in my case I deleted not just files but also folders. – Goose – 2016-06-13T14:45:42.013

3Erorgh!!! Did I just delete my project folders with git clean -df? How do i get this back? Please help!!!! I dod a ls and I cannot see another folder that I had no intention to delete – user2441441 – 2016-07-29T17:17:39.700


@user2441441: you're out of luck: you've cleaned files that were not under version control. Important files should always be under version control (not necessarily as part of the repository they're located in: you can put them in another, private repository and symlink to them). And files that are in a repo's working directory but not in the version controlled by that repo should always be .gitignored.

– leftaroundabout – 2016-09-16T11:32:19.420

i've been using these commands for years. have a case now where none of them works. it just keeps saying "changes not staged for commit" and listing the same files. there are no errors when i do clean or checkout! – Sonic Soul – 2016-11-29T19:07:20.353

You have to be at the root of your git repository for this to work correctly. – bejado – 2017-06-03T00:06:32.820

1Downvoted as it might remove your files. Not reliable solution. – Footniko – 2018-03-02T14:13:39.523


This checks out the current index for the current directory, throwing away all changes in files from the current directory downwards.

git checkout .

or this which checks out all files from the index, overwriting working tree files.

git checkout-index -a -f

CB Bailey

Posted 2008-09-09T19:33:59.133

Reputation: 503 773

23Hi, what is the difference between git checkout . and git checkout -- .? – Evan Hu – 2015-01-18T05:10:52.020

2@Evan: No difference in this case. – Robert Siemer – 2015-04-19T13:48:23.573

7@Robert Siemer and in the general case? – RJFalconer – 2015-06-05T12:20:08.960

1@Evan: bad place to ask this question. – It is unrelated to the question of the OP, and unrelated to the answer here. – Robert Siemer – 2015-06-05T13:53:23.400

10+1 This is the RIGHT ANSWER, as it correctly handles the case where some files have both staged and un-staged changes. Note that this solution DISCARDS the unstaged changes; if you wish to retain them, then you should use @greg-hewgill 's answer of git stash save --keep-index. – Rhubbarb – 2015-06-15T15:12:18.550

git checkout -- does not work if you have only one branch. git checkout . always works. – Ed Bayiates – 2018-06-29T16:23:26.477


git clean -df

Cleans the working tree by recursively removing files that are not under version control, starting from the current directory.

-d: Remove untracked directories in addition to untracked files

-f: Force (might be not necessary depending on clean.requireForce setting)

Run git help clean to see the manual

Elvis Ciotti

Posted 2008-09-09T19:33:59.133

Reputation: 3 633

why this answer doesn't have all the votes? answered back in the 2011 and still correct. – Eugene Braginets – 2018-03-01T13:20:54.857


My favorite is

git checkout -p

That lets you selectively revert chunks.

See also:

git add -p


Posted 2008-09-09T19:33:59.133

Reputation: 3 745

8I love the ability to see the actual change before it's discarded. – Penghe Geng – 2015-02-03T21:42:30.273

This is what I use. git checkout -p and then "a" to accept all. – Mattis – 2015-04-24T06:51:42.117

2I've never thought about. That -p adds a nice extra layer of safety. Combine it with git clean -d to actually answer OP. – Stephan Henningsen – 2016-04-27T06:39:50.083


Since no answer suggests the exact option combination that I use, here it is:

git clean -dfx
git checkout .

This is the online help text for the used git clean options:


Remove untracked directories in addition to untracked files. If an untracked directory is managed by a different Git repository, it is not removed by default. Use -f option twice if you really want to remove such a directory.


If the Git configuration variable clean.requireForce is not set to false, Git clean will refuse to delete files or directories unless given -f, -n, or -i. Git will refuse to delete directories within the .git subdirectory or file, unless a second -f is given.


Don’t use the ignore rules from .gitignore (per directory) and $GIT_DIR/info/exclude, but do still use the ignore rules given with -e options. This allows removing all untracked files, including build products. This can be used (possibly in conjunction with git reset) to create a pristine working directory to test a clean build.

Also, git checkout . needs to be done in the root of the repo.

Martin G

Posted 2008-09-09T19:33:59.133

Reputation: 9 354


I really found this article helpful for explaining when to use what command:

There are a couple different cases:

  1. If you haven't staged the file, then you use git checkout. Checkout "updates files in the working tree to match the version in the index". If the files have not been staged (aka added to the index)... this command will essentially revert the files to what your last commit was.

    git checkout -- foo.txt

  2. If you have staged the file, then use git reset. Reset changes the index to match a commit.

    git reset -- foo.txt

I suspect that using git stash is a popular choice since it's a little less dangerous. You can always go back to it if you accidently blow too much away when using git reset. Reset is recursive by default.

Take a look at the article above for further advice.


Posted 2008-09-09T19:33:59.133

Reputation: 9 845


The easiest way to do this is by using this command:

This command is used to discard changes in working directory -

git checkout -- .

In git command, stashing of untracked files is achieved by using:

git stash -u

A H M Forhadul Islam

Posted 2008-09-09T19:33:59.133

Reputation: 822


If you aren't interested in keeping the unstaged changes (especially if the staged changes are new files), I found this handy:

git diff | git apply --reverse

Joshua Kunzmann

Posted 2008-09-09T19:33:59.133

Reputation: 710

6this misses any untracked files, which may be a good thing – flickerfly – 2011-12-22T20:00:21.597


As you type git status, (use "git checkout -- ..." to discard changes in working directory) is shown.

e.g. git checkout -- .


Posted 2008-09-09T19:33:59.133

Reputation: 636


git checkout -f

man git-checkout:

-f, --force

When switching branches, proceed even if the index or the working tree differs from HEAD. This is used to throw away local changes.

When checking out paths from the index, do not fail upon unmerged entries; instead, unmerged entries are ignored.


Posted 2008-09-09T19:33:59.133

Reputation: 3 892

2This would discard changes in the index!! (And the OP requires to leave them as is.) – Robert Siemer – 2015-04-19T13:59:37.843


You can use git stash - if something goes wrong, you can still revert from the stash. Similar to some other answer here, but this one also removes all unstaged files and also all unstaged deletes:

git add .
git stash

if you check that everything is OK, throw the stash away:

git stash drop

The answer from Bilal Maqsood with git clean also worked for me, but with the stash I have more control - if I do sth accidentally, I can still get my changes back


I think there is 1 more change (don't know why this worked for me before):

git add . -A instead of git add .

without the -A the removed files will not be staged


Posted 2008-09-09T19:33:59.133

Reputation: 2 194


Instead of discarding changes, I reset my remote to the origin. Note - this method is to completely restore your folder to that of the repo.

So I do this to make sure they don't sit there when I git reset (later - excludes gitignores on the Origin/branchname)

NOTE: If you want to keep files not yet tracked, but not in GITIGNORE you may wish to skip this step, as it will Wipe these untracked files not found on your remote repository (thanks @XtrmJosh).

git add --all

Then I

git fetch --all

Then I reset to origin

git reset --hard origin/branchname

That will put it back to square one. Just like RE-Cloning the branch, WHILE keeping all my gitignored files locally and in place.

Updated per user comment below: Variation to reset the to whatever current branch the user is on.

git reset --hard @{u}


Posted 2008-09-09T19:33:59.133

Reputation: 763

This is my preferred option, but why do you add all changes first? So far as I'm aware this just modifies the directory listing in Git files, while using git reset --hard, this will be lost anyway while the directories will still be removed. – XtrmJosh – 2015-09-30T10:00:51.857

I dont on mac or linux, github windows powershell sometimes leaves the files there after reset.

I think its because git reset sets all files in the repo to its original state. If theyre not added, theyre not touched. The desktop client then will pickup the "hey this file is in here and needs to be committed" – Nick – 2015-10-01T17:04:49.213

Sense made. I don't use Windows so haven't seen that issue (haven't used Windows for the last few months at least, don't remember much before that - it's one huge regrettable blur). Might be worth noting the rationale in your main answer :) – XtrmJosh – 2015-10-02T12:18:11.233

I ran across this issue on a Mac too now. If the file is not tracked in the Repo sometimes git reset doesnt touch it. I cant really isolate the "WHY" but when that happens, if I reset, and i still have 1 uncommitted file or two, i add --all and reset --hard again – Nick – 2015-11-19T02:18:10.577

If you haven't committed or staged a new file git completely ignores it and won't touch it. It doesn't want to accidentally delete something you might want. You can see here at --untracked-files[=&lt;mode&gt;] that untracked files are shown by default in git status, and you can tell it not to show them if it bothers you! For the record, git add --all will stage the files ready for commit, at which point git recognises them (hence git reset --hard will then work). git clean removes untracked files see here

– XtrmJosh – 2015-11-19T17:41:06.390

Thanks - So basically if you git add --all, you can reset, or you have to git add --all , then get clean

Guess clean is a few less characters ;) – Nick – 2015-11-21T05:38:47.697

Pretty much, although if there are untracked files lingering I tend to just leave them alone. Paranoia and all that, makes me think I'll break something :D – XtrmJosh – 2015-11-22T09:25:17.710

2A nice little variation of this I like is git reset --hard @{u} which resets the branch to wherever the current remote-tracking branch is – user2221343 – 2016-01-06T19:39:27.887


If you merely wish to remove changes to existing files, use checkout (documented here).

git checkout -- .
  • No branch is specified, so it checks out the current branch.
  • The double-hyphen (--) tells Git that what follows should be taken as its second argument (path), that you skipped specification of a branch.
  • The period (.) indicates all paths.

If you want to remove files added since your last commit, use clean (documented here):

git clean -i 
  • The -i option initiates an interactive clean, to prevent mistaken deletions.
  • A handful of other options are available for a quicker execution; see the documentation.

If you wish to move changes to a holding space for later access, use stash (documented here):

git stash
  • All changes will be moved to Git's Stash, for possible later access.
  • A handful of options are available for more nuanced stashing; see the documentation.


Posted 2008-09-09T19:33:59.133

Reputation: 6 220


Tried all the solutions above but still couldn't get rid of new, unstaged files.

Use git clean -f to remove those new files - with caution though! Note the force option.


Posted 2008-09-09T19:33:59.133

Reputation: 573


simply say

git stash

It will remove all your local changes. You also can use later by saying

git stash apply 

or git stash pop


Posted 2008-09-09T19:33:59.133

Reputation: 2 904


Just use:

git stash -u

Done. Easy.

If you really care about your stash stack then you can follow with git stash drop. But at that point you're better off using (from Mariusz Nowak):

git checkout -- .
git clean -df

Nonetheless, I like git stash -u the best because it "discards" all tracked and untracked changes in just one command. Yet git checkout -- . only discards tracked changes, and git clean -df only discards untracked changes... and typing both commands is far too much work :)

Ben Wilde

Posted 2008-09-09T19:33:59.133

Reputation: 3 883


This works even in directories that are; outside of normal git permissions.

sudo chmod -R 664 ./* && git checkout -- . && git clean -dfx

Happened to me recently


Posted 2008-09-09T19:33:59.133

Reputation: 7 049

Beware though, that the git ignored content will not retain it's original permissions!

Hence it can cause a security risk. – twicejr – 2014-12-10T18:06:10.680

@twicejr You're wrong, please read git help clean "-d Remove untracked directories in addition to untracked files." – GlassGhost – 2014-12-10T22:40:41.440

Why did you set all your files to be world read/write? Not good practice. – Ghoti – 2015-09-28T11:31:54.683

@Ghoti my bad, 664 is correct? you're also welcome to edit the answer. – GlassGhost – 2015-09-28T13:29:21.303

Setting all permissions to 664 makes a lot of assumptions about what kind of permissions the project needs. I think using that part of the command will cause issues for some people. – ianrandmckenzie – 2018-11-20T17:12:29.727


cd path_to_project_folder  # take you to your project folder/working directory 
git checkout .             # removes all unstaged changes in working directory


Posted 2008-09-09T19:33:59.133

Reputation: 310


Another way to get rid of new files that is more specific than git clean -df (it will allow you to get rid of some files not necessarily all), is to add the new files to the index first, then stash, then drop the stash.

This technique is useful when, for some reason, you can't easily delete all of the untracked files by some ordinary mechanism (like rm).


Posted 2008-09-09T19:33:59.133

Reputation: 6 261


No matter what state your repo is in you can always reset to any previous commit:

git reset --hard <commit hash>

This will discard all changes which were made after that commit.


Posted 2008-09-09T19:33:59.133

Reputation: 6 274


What follows is really only a solution if you are working with a fork of a repository where you regularly synchronize (e.g. pull request) with another repo. Short answer: delete fork and refork, but read the warnings on github.

I had a similar problem, perhaps not identical, and I'm sad to say my solution is not ideal, but it is ultimately effective.

I would often have git status messages like this (involving at least 2/4 files):

$ git status
# Not currently on any branch.
# Changes to be committed:
#   (use "git reset HEAD <file>..." to unstage)
#       modified:   doc/PROJECT/MEDIUM/ATS-constraint/constraint_s2var.dats
#       modified:   doc/PROJECT/MEDIUM/ATS-constraint/parsing/parsing_s2var.dats
# Changes not staged for commit:
#   (use "git add <file>..." to update what will be committed)
#   (use "git checkout -- <file>..." to discard changes in working directory)
#       modified:   doc/PROJECT/MEDIUM/ATS-constraint/constraint_s2Var.dats
#       modified:   doc/PROJECT/MEDIUM/ATS-constraint/parsing/parsing_s2Var.dats

A keen eye will note that these files have dopplegangers that are a single letter in case off. Somehow, and I have no idea what led me down this path to start with (as I was not working with these files myself from the upstream repo), I had switched these files. Try the many solutions listed on this page (and other pages) did not seem to help.

I was able to fix the problem by deleting my forked repository and all local repositories, and reforking. This alone was not enough; upstream had to rename the files in question to new filenames. As long as you don't have any uncommited work, no wikis, and no issues that diverge from the upstream repository, you should be just fine. Upstream may not be very happy with you, to say the least. As for my problem, it is undoubtedly a user error as I'm not that proficient with git, but the fact that it is far from easy to fix points to an issue with git as well.


Posted 2008-09-09T19:33:59.133

Reputation: 1 589


In my opinion,

git clean -df

should do the trick. As per Git documentation on git clean

git-clean - Remove untracked files from the working tree


Cleans the working tree by recursively removing files that are not under version control, starting from the current directory.

Normally, only files unknown to Git are removed, but if the -x option is specified, ignored files are also removed. This can, for example, be useful to remove all build products.

If any optional ... arguments are given, only those paths are affected.


-d Remove untracked directories in addition to untracked files. If an untracked directory is managed by a different Git repository, it is not removed by default. Use -f option twice if you really want to remove such a directory.

-f --force If the Git configuration variable clean.requireForce is not set to false, git clean will refuse to run unless given -f, -n or -i.


Posted 2008-09-09T19:33:59.133

Reputation: 1 331


When you want to transfer a stash to someone else:

# add files
git add .  
# diff all the changes to a file
git diff --staged > ~/mijn-fix.diff
# remove local changes 
git reset && git checkout .
# (later you can re-apply the diff:)
git apply ~/mijn-fix.diff

[edit] as commented, it ís possible to name stashes. Well, use this if you want to share your stash ;)


Posted 2008-09-09T19:33:59.133

Reputation: 1 049

5Actually Git stash can have a title. For instance git stash save "Feature X work in progress". – Colin D Bennett – 2014-12-09T22:39:11.603


If all the staged files were actually committed, then the branch can simply be reset e.g. from your GUI with about three mouse clicks: Branch, Reset, Yes!

So what I often do in practice to revert unwanted local changes is to commit all the good stuff, and then reset the branch.

If the good stuff is committed in a single commit, then you can use "amend last commit" to bring it back to being staged or unstaged if you'd ultimately like to commit it a little differently.

This might not be the technical solution you are looking for to your problem, but I find it a very practical solution. It allows you to discard unstaged changes selectively, resetting the changes you don't like and keeping the ones you do.

So in summary, I simply do commit, branch reset, and amend last commit.


Posted 2008-09-09T19:33:59.133

Reputation: 1 284


If you are in case of submodule and no other solutions work try:

  • To check what is the problem (maybe a "dirty" case) use:

    git diff

  • To remove stash

    git submodule update


Posted 2008-09-09T19:33:59.133

Reputation: 1 052


None of the solutions work if you just changed the permissions of a file (this is on DOS/Windoze)

Mon 23/11/2015-15:16:34.80 C:\...\work\checkout\slf4j+> git status
On branch SLF4J_1.5.3
Changes not staged for commit:
  (use "git add ..." to update what will be committed)
  (use "git checkout -- ..." to discard changes in working directory)

        modified:   .gitignore
        modified:   LICENSE.txt
        modified:   TODO.txt
        modified:   codeStyle.xml
        modified:   pom.xml

no changes added to commit (use "git add" and/or "git commit -a")

Mon 23/11/2015-15:16:37.87 C:\...\work\checkout\slf4j+> git diff
diff --git a/.gitignore b/.gitignore
old mode 100644
new mode 100755
diff --git a/LICENSE.txt b/LICENSE.txt
old mode 100644
new mode 100755
diff --git a/TODO.txt b/TODO.txt
old mode 100644
new mode 100755
diff --git a/codeStyle.xml b/codeStyle.xml
old mode 100644
new mode 100755
diff --git a/pom.xml b/pom.xml
old mode 100644
new mode 100755
diff --git a/ b/
old mode 100644
new mode 100755

Mon 23/11/2015-15:16:45.22 C:\...\work\checkout\slf4j+> git reset --hard HEAD
HEAD is now at 8fa8488 12133-CHIXMISSINGMESSAGES MALCOLMBOEKHOFF 20141223124940 Added .gitignore

Mon 23/11/2015-15:16:47.42 C:\...\work\checkout\slf4j+> git clean -f

Mon 23/11/2015-15:16:53.49 C:\...\work\checkout\slf4j+> git stash save -u
Saved working directory and index state WIP on SLF4J_1.5.3: 8fa8488 12133-CHIXMISSINGMESSAGES MALCOLMBOEKHOFF 20141223124940 Added .gitignore
HEAD is now at 8fa8488 12133-CHIXMISSINGMESSAGES MALCOLMBOEKHOFF 20141223124940 Added .gitignore

Mon 23/11/2015-15:17:00.40 C:\...\work\checkout\slf4j+> git stash drop
Dropped refs/[email protected]{0} (cb4966e9b1e9c9d8daa79ab94edc0c1442a294dd)

Mon 23/11/2015-15:17:06.75 C:\...\work\checkout\slf4j+> git stash drop
Dropped refs/[email protected]{0} (e6c49c470f433ce344e305c5b778e810625d0529)

Mon 23/11/2015-15:17:08.90 C:\...\work\checkout\slf4j+> git stash drop
No stash found.

Mon 23/11/2015-15:17:15.21 C:\...\work\checkout\slf4j+> git checkout -- .

Mon 23/11/2015-15:22:00.68 C:\...\work\checkout\slf4j+> git checkout -f -- .

Mon 23/11/2015-15:22:04.53 C:\...\work\checkout\slf4j+> git status
On branch SLF4J_1.5.3
Changes not staged for commit:
  (use "git add ..." to update what will be committed)
  (use "git checkout -- ..." to discard changes in working directory)

        modified:   .gitignore
        modified:   LICENSE.txt
        modified:   TODO.txt
        modified:   codeStyle.xml
        modified:   pom.xml

no changes added to commit (use "git add" and/or "git commit -a")

Mon 23/11/2015-15:22:13.06 C:\...\work\checkout\slf4j+> git diff
diff --git a/.gitignore b/.gitignore
old mode 100644
new mode 100755
diff --git a/LICENSE.txt b/LICENSE.txt
old mode 100644
new mode 100755
diff --git a/TODO.txt b/TODO.txt
old mode 100644
new mode 100755
diff --git a/codeStyle.xml b/codeStyle.xml
old mode 100644
new mode 100755
diff --git a/pom.xml b/pom.xml
old mode 100644
new mode 100755
diff --git a/ b/
old mode 100644
new mode 100755

The only way to fix this is to manually reset the permissions on the changed files:

Mon 23/11/2015-15:25:43.79 C:\...\work\checkout\slf4j+> git status -s | egrep "^ M" | cut -c4- | for /f "usebackq tokens=* delims=" %A in (`more`) do chmod 644 %~A

Mon 23/11/2015-15:25:55.37 C:\...\work\checkout\slf4j+> git status
On branch SLF4J_1.5.3
nothing to commit, working directory clean

Mon 23/11/2015-15:25:59.28 C:\...\work\checkout\slf4j+>

Mon 23/11/2015-15:26:31.12 C:\...\work\checkout\slf4j+> git diff

Malcolm Boekhoff

Posted 2008-09-09T19:33:59.133

Reputation: 656


I had a weird situation where a file is always unstaged, this helps me to resolve.

git rm .gitattributes
git add -A
git reset --hard


Posted 2008-09-09T19:33:59.133

Reputation: 154


You could create your own alias which describes how to do it in a descriptive way.

I use the next alias to discard changes.

Discard changes in a (list of) file(s) in working tree

discard = checkout --

Then you can use it as next to discard all changes:

discard .

Or just a file:

discard filename

Otherwise, if you want to discard all changes and also the untracked files, I use a mix of checkout and clean:

Clean and discard changes and untracked files in working tree

cleanout = !git clean -df && git checkout -- .

So the use is simple as next:


Now is available in the next Github repo which contains a lot of aliases:


Posted 2008-09-09T19:33:59.133

Reputation: 4 772


If it's almost impossible to rule out modifications of the files, have you considered ignoring them? If this statement is right and you wouldn't touch those files during your development, this command may be useful:

git update-index --assume-unchanged file_to_ignore

Jesús Castro

Posted 2008-09-09T19:33:59.133

Reputation: 1 099


Just use:

git stash -k -u

This will stash unstaged changes and untracked files (new files) and keep staged files.

It's better than reset/checkout/clean, because you might want them back later (by git stash pop). Keeping them in the stash is better than discarding them.


Posted 2008-09-09T19:33:59.133

Reputation: 1 027