Semiconductor test programs used for measuring digital timing or analog levels make extensive use of binary search. Automatic Test Equipment (ATE) from Advantest, Teradyne, Verigy and the like can be thought of as truth table blasters, applying input logic and verifying output states of a digital part.

Think of a simple gate, with the input logic changing at time = 0 of each cycle, and transitioning X ns after the input logic changes. If you strobe the output before T=X,the logic does not match expected value. Strobe later than time T=X, and the logic does match expected value. Binary search is used to find the threshold between the latest value that the logic does not match, and the earliest part where it does.(A Teradyne FLEX system resolves timing to 39pS resolution, other testers are comparable). That's a simple way to measure transition time. Same technique can be used to solve for setup time, hold time, operable power supply levels, power supply vs. delay,etc.

Any kind of microprocessor, memory, FPGA, logic, and many analog mixed signal circuits use binary search in test and characterization.

-- mike

4Where is plugging round pegs into round holes used in practice? – Svante – 2010-02-14T21:24:57.580

As I feel it's not emphasised enough in the top answers, I want to clarify that a binary search is used when your data is

sorted. My most recent example was when checking if a given word was in a word list I knew to be sorted (because I sorted it myself earlier in the program). If your data isn't sorted, or can't be sorted, you can't trust the result of a binary search. – Andrew Martin – 2017-07-20T17:22:42.370