Ayesha Jalal

Ayesha Jalal
Born Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan
Residence Boston, Massachusetts, United States
Nationality Pakistani, American
Alma mater Wellesley College
Trinity College, Cambridge
Awards MacArthur Fellows Program, Sitara-i-Imtiaz
Scientific career
Fields History and Sociology
Institutions University of Wisconsin–Madison
Columbia University
Lahore University of Management Sciences
Tufts University
Harvard University

Ayesha Jalal (Punjabi, Urdu: عائشہ جلال) is a Pakistani-American historian who serves as the Mary Richardson Professor of History at Tufts University, and was the recipient of the 1998 MacArthur Fellow.

Born in Lahore, Jalal studied at Wellesley College before moving to Trinity College, Cambridge where she received her doctorate in 1983. She stayed at Cambridge until 1987, working as a fellow of Trinity College and later as a Leverhulme Fellow. She moved to Washington, D.C. in 1985, to work as a fellow at the Woodrow Wilson Center and later as Academy Scholar at the Harvard University's Academy for International and Area Studies. In 1999, she joined Tufts University as a tenured professor.[1][2][3][4]

The bulk of her work deals with the creation of Muslim identities in modern South Asia.[5]

Early life

Ayesha Jalal was born in Lahore in Pakistan to Hamid Jalal, a senior Pakistani civil servant, and is the grandniece of the renowned Urdu fiction writer Saadat Hasan Manto. She came to New York City at the age of 14 when her father was posted at the Pakistan Mission to the United Nations.

She obtained her BA, majoring in History and Political Science, from Wellesley College, USA, and her doctorate in history from Trinity College at University of Cambridge, where she wrote her Ph.D. dissertation: 'Jinnah, the Muslim League and the Demand for Pakistan'.


Ayesha Jalal has been Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge (1980–84), Leverhulme Fellow at the Center of South Asian Studies, Cambridge (1984–87), Fellow of the Woodrow Wilson Center for International Scholars in Washington, DC (1985–86) and Academy Scholar at Harvard University's Academy for International and Area Studies (1988–90). She has taught at the University of Wisconsin–Madison, Tufts University, Columbia University, Harvard University and Lahore University of Management Sciences.

She is among the most prominent American academics who writes on the history of South Asia. In her book The Sole Spokesman (Cambridge University Press, 1985 and 1994), Jalal gives her perspective of what happened in the years between the 1937 elections and the Partition of the Indian subcontinent, identifying the factors which led to the creation of Pakistan and provides new insights into the nature of the British transfer of power in India. In particular, she focuses on the role of Mohammad Ali Jinnah, the leader of the All-India Muslim League, and the main proponent of the Two Nation Theory on which the demand for Pakistan was based. Jinnah claimed to be the sole spokesman of all Indian Muslims, not only in provinces where they were in a majority but also in the provinces where they were in a minority. Yet given the political geography of the subcontinent it was clear that there would always be as many Muslims outside a specifically Muslim state as inside it. This book investigates how Jinnah proposed to resolve the contradiction between assertions of a separate Muslim "nation" and the need for a strategy which could safeguard the interests of all Indian Muslims. It does so by identifying Jinnah's real political aims, the reasons why he was reluctant to bring them into the open, and his success or failure in achieving them.

Jalal's other books include: The State of Martial Rule: the Origins of Pakistan's Political Economy of Defence (Cambridge University Press, 1990); Democracy and Authoritarianism in South Asia: a Comparative and Historical Perspective (Cambridge University Press 1995); Modern South Asia: History, Culture and Political Economy, coauthored with Sugata Bose (Routledge 1998); Self and Sovereignty: the Muslim Individual and the Community of Islam in South Asia since c.1850 (Routledge, 2000) and Partisans of Allah: Jihad in South Asia (Harvard University Press, 2008). Her most recent book based on the Lawrence Stone Lectures she gave at the Davis Center at Princeton University is called The Pity of Partition: Manto's Life, Times and Work Across the India Pakistan Divide (Princeton University Press, forthcoming March 2013).


A leading historian of Pakistan as well as South Asia, Jalal has received numerous awards and acknowledgements including the Prize Fellowship from Trinity College (1980–84), the MacArthur Foundation Fellowship (1998-2003)[6] and the Sitara-i-Imtiaz, one of Pakistan's highest civilian awards, in 2009.[7]



  • Jalal, Ayesha (1990). The state of martial rule: the origins of Pakistan's political economy of defence. Cambridge England New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521051842.
  • Jalal, Ayesha (1994). The sole spokesman: Jinnah, the Muslim League, and the demand for Pakistan. Cambridge Cambridgeshire New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521458504. First published 1985.
  • Jalal, Ayesha (1995). Democracy and authoritarianism in South Asia: a comparative and historical perspective. Lahore, Pakistan: Sang-e-Meel Publications. ISBN 9789693506297.
  • Jalal, Ayesha; Bose, Sugata (1997). Nationalism, democracy, and development: state and politics in India. Delhi New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195639445.
  • Jalal, Ayesha (2000). Self and sovereignty individual and community in South Asian Islam since 1850. New York: Routledge. ISBN 9780415220774.
  • Jalal, Ayesha (2008). Partisans of Allah: Jihad in South Asia. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. ISBN 9780674047365.
  • Jalal, Ayesha; Bose, Sugata (2011). Modern South Asia: history, culture, political economy (3rd ed.). London New York: Routledge. ISBN 9780415779432.
  • Jalal, Ayesha (2013). The pity of partition: Manto's life, times, and work across the India-Pakistan divide. Princeton: Princeton University Press. ISBN 9780691153629.
  • Jalal, Ayesha (2014). The struggle for Pakistan: a Muslim homeland and global politics. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. ISBN 9780674052895.

Chapters in books

  • Jalal, Ayesha (1997), "Exploding Communalism : The Politics of Muslim Identity in South Asia" (PDF), in Bose, Sugata; Jalal, Ayesha, Nationalism, Democracy and Development: State and Politics in India, Delhi: Oxford University Press, ISBN 9780195644425, retrieved 15 April 2018.
  • Jalal, Ayesha (2009), "Freedom and equality: from Iqbal's philosophy to Sen's ethical concerns", in Kanbur, Ravi; Basu, Kaushik, Arguments for a better world: essays in honor of Amartya Sen | Volume II: Society, institutions and development, Oxford New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 452–469, ISBN 9780199239979.


  1. "Department of History - Tufts University". ase.tufts.edu. Retrieved 2016-11-06.
  2. "Jalal, Ayesha". Atlantic Council. Retrieved 2016-11-06.
  3. Chishty-Mujahid, Nadya (2015-02-01). "COVER STORY: The Struggle for Pakistan by Ayesha Jalal". DAWN.COM. Retrieved 2016-11-06.
  4. Chotiner, Isaac (2014-12-26). "Pakistan: The Land of the Pure". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 2016-11-06.
  5. "Pakistan needs to breed more historians". The Hindu. Retrieved 28 January 2012.
  6. "Ayesha Jalal — MacArthur Foundation". www.macfound.org. Retrieved 2017-02-10.
  7. "Ayesha Jalal: Borderline politics". The Express Tribune. 2014-04-20. Retrieved 2017-02-10.
This article is issued from Wikipedia. The text is licensed under Creative Commons - Attribution - Sharealike. Additional terms may apply for the media files.