风暴潮

风暴潮或稱暴潮英语:storm surge)是由熱帶氣旋、温带气旋、冷锋的强风作用和气压骤变等强烈的天气系统引起的海面异常升降现象,又称“风暴增水”、“风暴海啸”、“气象海啸”或“风潮”。风暴潮会使受到影响的海区的潮位大大地超过正常。如果风暴潮恰好与影响海区漲潮相重叠,就会使水位暴涨,海水湧进内陆,造成巨大破坏。如1953年2月发生在荷兰沿岸的强大风暴潮,使水位高出正常潮位3米多。洪水冲毁了防护堤,淹没土地80万英亩,导致2000余人死亡。又如1970年11月12-13日发生在孟加拉湾沿岸地区的一次风暴潮,曾导致30餘万人死亡和100多万人无家可归。1962年,颱風溫黛在香港吐露港引發嚴重风暴潮。2013年,颱風海燕侵襲菲律賓禮智省獨魯萬市,導致1萬人以上死亡。

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